With industrialization, modern intensive farming techniques have been introduced. Intensive farming is sustainable as there is not much land available for farming. Pasture intensification is the improvement of pasture soils and grasses to increase the food production potential of livestock systems. [29][30][31][32][33] "Concentrated animal feeding operations" (CAFO), or "intensive livestock operations", can hold large numbers (some up to hundreds of thousands) of cows, hogs, turkeys, or chickens, often indoors. of California, Davis, CA, "An expansion of the demographic transition model: the dynamic link between agricultural productivity and population", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Intensive_farming&oldid=991234420, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2013, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2019, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from November 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Multiple herbicides, in combination or in rotation, Strains genetically engineered for herbicide tolerance, Locally adapted strains that tolerate or out-compete weeds, Intentionally introducing flowering plants into agricultural ecosystems to increase pollen-and nectar-resources required by natural enemies of insect pests, Using crop rotation and cover crops to suppress nematodes in potatoes, Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture is a practice in which the by-products (wastes) from one species are recycled to become inputs (, 300 years ago a more intensive agriculture fed 600 million people, Today industrial agriculture attempts to feed 8 billion people, This page was last edited on 29 November 2020, at 00:37. Paddy fields are a typical feature of rice-growing countries of east and southeast Asia, including Malaysia, China, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, Thailand, Korea, Japan, Vietnam, Taiwan, Indonesia, India, and the Philippines. Let us move over to the following paragraphs that will introduce us to the various types of intensive farming techniques. Use of pesticides tends to kill other useful plants and beneficial insects. Over the years, agriculture systems have diversified and helped in increasing the production of the crop yield. They are also found in other rice-growing regions such as Piedmont (Italy), the Camargue (France), and the Artibonite Valley (Haiti). Intensive subsistence agriculture is widespread in many less developed countries where over 80% of their rural population is engaged in this type of farming. DISADVANTAGES OF INTENSIVE FARMING … On the other extreme, extensive farming is a farming method, wherein acres of land are being farmed, with lower inputs, i.e. Subsistence: Grown just for the farmer and his family. Macrosocial Accounting Project, Dept. Intensive farming can be non-industrial, in which human labor is still a significant factor in achieving high yields, or industrial, meaning operations that are largely mechanized. Animals are kept in smaller spaces, thus reducing the requirement for more energy, food as well as space. This is also true for some omnivorous penaeid shrimp species (e.g., tiger shrimps). Its main objective is to increase the productivity of the given land as much as possible. Arable: Crops. [3], Intensive animal farming involves large numbers of animals raised on limited land, for example by rotational grazing,[4][5] or in the Western world sometimes as concentrated animal feeding operations. Intensive Farming: It is a farming practice which gives emphasis on maximizing yield from the given piece of land through various means like heavy use of pesticides, capital, labor, high-yielding varieties (HYVs) of crops etc. Crop rotation or crop sequencing is the practice of growing a series of dissimilar types of crops in the same space in sequential seasons for benefits such as avoiding pathogen and pest buildup that occurs when one species is continuously cropped. The intensive system is considered as a high-cost method of fish farming… Criminology 37.1 (1999): 117-148. agriculture has such large impacts on climate change, Agricultural development in Britain between the 16th century and the mid-19th century, United States Environmental Protection Agency, "Sustainable Intensification for Smallholders", Pastures for profit: A guide to rotational grazing, Agricultural Revolution in England 1500–1850, "Collectors at Great Oregon Steam-Up are always steamed about their passion", "Ottawa Valley Land Rovers – Member's Prose & Pages – Mike Rooth – Locomotives – Steam Tractor, Part I", "Agricultural Scientific Revolution: Mechanical", "The Impact of Mechanization on Agriculture", "A Brief History of Our Deadly Addiction to Nitrogen Fertilizer", "Indicativo de pastagens plantadas em processo de degradação no bioma Cerrado", "Climate change mitigation through intensified pasture management: Estimating greenhouse gas emissions on cattle farms in the Brazilian Amazon", "Impact of the intensification of beef production in Brazil on greenhouse gas emissions and land use", "Carbon footprint in different beef production systems on a southern Brazilian farm: a case stud", "Comparing the effects of continuous and time-controlled grazing systems on soil characteristics in Southeast Queensland". However, the animals are forever kept in closed confined areas like cages and crates. The intensive farming techniques involves extensive input of capital, labor as well as pesticides and fertilizers to raise crops on a smaller land area. Overhead irrigation, using center-pivot or lateral-moving sprinklers, gives a much more equal and controlled distribution pattern. [67] [17][21] ICLF systems yield beef cattle productivity up to ten times that of degraded pastures, additional crop production from maize, sorghum, and soybean harvests, and greatly reduced greenhouse gas balances due to forest carbon sequestration. Out of these cookies, the cookies that are categorized as necessary are stored on your browser as they are essential for the working of basic functionalities of the website. [34] The term is often used pejoratively. In that particular book, we had two chapters on Farming and Plantation”, where various types of farming were taught, such as terrace farming, contour farming, Arable farming, subsistence farming, etc. These methods increase the yields of food and fiber per acre as compared to extensive animal husbandry; concentrated feed is brought to seldom-moved animals, or with rotational grazing the animals are repeatedly moved to fresh forage.[4][5]. Crop rotation can also improve soil structure and fertility by alternating deep-rooted and shallow-rooted plants. Agroforestry combines agriculture and orchard/forestry technologies to create more integrated, diverse, productive, profitable, healthy and sustainable land-use systems. Undesirable behaviors often related to the stress of confinement led to a search for docile breeds (e.g., with natural dominant behaviors bred out), physical restraints to stop interaction, such as individual cages for chickens, or physical modification such as the de-beaking of chickens to reduce the harm of fighting. Intensive aquaculture takes place on land using tanks, ponds, or other controlled systems, or in the ocean, using cages.[48]. This helps them build up extra meat and fat, thus increasing higher yield of meat and meat products. [18], In the Twelve Aprils grazing program for dairy production, developed by the USDA-SARE forage crops for dairy herds are planted into a perennial pasture. In 1909, the Haber-Bosch method to synthesize ammonium nitrate was first demonstrated. Carnivorous finfish species such as salmon, seabass, groupers, eel, halibut, and cod are typically farmed intensively and depend almost exclusively on commercially prepared feeds or aquafeeds. Norin 10 wheat, a variety developed by Orville Vogel from Japanese dwarf wheat varieties, was instrumental in developing wheat cultivars. Since cereals that absorbed extra nitrogen would typically lodge (fall over) before harvest, semi-dwarfing genes were bred into their genomes. Keeping all these in mind, let’s take you into the world of farming as we discuss the various types of farming, so stick with us till the end. Thus, one has to pay for a large workforce that cuts down the profit margin considerably. Mixed: Crops and animals. It is characterized by a low fallow ratio, higher use of inputs such as capital and labour, and higher crop yields per unit land area.[1]. This website uses cookies to improve your experience while you navigate through the website. [57][58] This is a continuation of thousands of years of invention in feeding growing populations. Herbicides, insecticides, and fertilizers accumulate in ground and surface waters. Sources discussing "intensive farming", "intensive agriculture" or "factory farming": Sources discussing "industrial farming", "industrial agriculture" and "factory farming": Pimentel, Berger, et al., "Water resources: agricultural and environmental issues", BioScience 54.10 (Oct 2004), p909, Boserup, The Conditions of Agricultural Growth, Allen and Unwin, 1965, expanded and updated in Population and Technology, Blackwell, 1980. Apart from this, it is also associated with farms that keep livestock above their holding capacity, which in turn leads to pollution, various diseases, and infections brought about by overcrowding and poor hygiene. This helps the vegetation on the field to renew its energy reserves, deepen the root system as well as help in long-term increase of biomass production. Even if intensive farming helps save on costs, it requires use of intensive labor. There are different types of agriculture production systems that includes extensive farming and intensive farming. These have an increased nitrogen-absorbing potential compared to other varieties. [68], Type of agriculture using high inputs to try to get high outputs. ), Intensive monoculture increases the risk of failures due to pests, adverse weather and disease. Intensive Farming 3. [15], The discovery of antibiotics and vaccines facilitated raising livestock by reducing diseases. Some of the types of intensive farming are as follows: Factory Farming. Most commercial agriculture is intensive in one or more ways. Intensive farming, also known as intensive agriculture and industrial agriculture (as opposed to extensive agriculture) is a type of agriculture, arable farming and animal husbandry, with a higher level of input and production per square unit of agricultural land area. [citation needed]. But agriculture brought much longer hours of work and a less rich diet than hunter-gatherers enjoyed. INTENSIVE FARMING Intensive farming involves chemicals ,fertilisers ,pesticides and growth regulators. Intensive farming involves production of high yield crops in a small area with use of lot of fertilizers and pesticides. Types of Intensive Farming Intensive farms contain large numbers of animals. It is good for the environment. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. Historians cited enclosure, mechanization, four-field crop rotation, and selective breeding as the most important innovations. The farm actually functions as a factory for raising animals for meat, milk as well as eggs for commercial use. High-yielding varieties outperformed traditional varieties several fold and responded better to the addition of irrigation, pesticides, and fertilizers. However, the advantage is lost for the progeny of the F1 hybrids, meaning seeds for annual crops need to be purchased every season, thus increasing costs and profits for farmers. Drip irrigation is the most expensive and least-used type, but delivers water to plant roots with minimal losses. This is a contrast to traditional agriculture, which does not get as much output per area. Horse-drawn machinery such as the McCormick reaper revolutionized harvesting, while inventions such as the cotton gin reduced the cost of processing. Any cookies that may not be particularly necessary for the website to function and is used specifically to collect user personal data via analytics, ads, other embedded contents are termed as non-necessary cookies. Intensive farming designs limit the range of habitats, inputs to the system particularly those used for soil fertility and pest control determine the impact on species within the habitats. [63] Agrochemicals have been implicated[by whom?] Elements of this integration can include: Holistic management was originally developed for reversing desertification. Jo-Anne McArthur / We Animals Dammed rivers creating reservoirs store water for irrigation and other uses over large areas. Further population growth among shifting slash-and-burn farmers led to shorter fallow periods, falling yields and soil erosion. 1. "[59], Industrial agriculture uses huge amounts of water, energy,[60] and industrial chemicals, increasing pollution in the arable land, usable water, and atmosphere. Agricultural development in Britain between the 16th century and the mid-19th century saw a massive increase in agricultural productivity and net output. One of the most efficient and least-known forms of farming, this method pairs plants based on natural pest repellent qualities, root depth, and other factors. Healthier produce types like fruits and veg are more affordable to the public when intensive farming practices are used. Sign up to receive the latest and greatest articles from our site automatically each week (give or take)...right to your inbox. 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