Max Weber classified leadership as traditional, rational-legal (bureaucratic), and charismatic. gmtgames.com. [4] For later proconsuls, the same sources use the shortened form. In 227 BC, two praetors were assigned the administration of these two provinces. Then the remaining Consul (or a newly replaced proconsul) goes back into the cup and two new consuls are drawn. See more. In 291 BC Quintus Fabius Maximus Gurges had his command extended and to carry out mop up operations towards the end of the war. Augustus, Rome's first emperor, replaced these essentially private armies with a standing imperial army. Each year, the citizens of Rome elected two consuls to serve jointly for a one-year term. (Proconsul denotes the person had been consul.) [20] Sulla made the governorships annual and required the holder to leave the province within thirty days after the arrival of his successor. From the mid-4th century bc the Romans recognized the necessity, during lengthy wars, of extending the terms of certain magistrates; such extension was termed prorogatio. Le législateur peut toutefois prévoir qu’il y a assimilation du diplomate au consul général pour l’application d’une loi. [16], Publilius was one of two consuls for the year 327 BC. In the Roman Empire, proconsul was a title held by a civil governor and did not imply military command. [14], A proconsul was endowed with full consular authority outside the city of Rome. (in ancient Rome) A magistrate who served as a consul and then as the governor of a province. J.-C. se tient le premier procès connu intenté à un proconsul pour ses extorsions perpétrées en Espagne. [21] In 81 BC, Sulla added two praetors so that the two proconsuls and six propraetors could be assigned to govern the ten provinces Rome ruled at that time. It became customary to extend the authority of consuls and the praetors at the end of their annual terms. Consul is being used Linnaean-style to symbolize the chimpanzee. [3] Cicero notes that this did not include the right to consult auguries: "Our ancestors would not undertake any military enterprise without consulting the auspices; but now, for many years, our wars have been conducted by pro-consuls and propraetors, who do not have the right to take auspices. After this, no praetors were added even when the number of provinces increased. The terms satrap (from Persian) and viceroy (from French) are both used in a similar way. 869 Related Articles [filter] Roman Empire. Les consuls sortis de charge sont nommés comme proconsuls à la tête des provinces de l'empire romain pendant au moins un an. [1], In his classic study, Max Weber distinguished among three modes of legitimate governance: traditional, rational-legal, and charismatic. Democracies put the military under civilian authority and tend to avoid policymaking by military leaders. [12] Modern technology makes communication easier than ever. See Wiktionary Terms of Use for details. - Si trop de proconsuls et de propréteurs ne demandaient quà fermer les yeux sur les méfaits de ces derniers, sauf à recevoir de leur tolérance le juste prix, dautres essayèrent d’y mettre obstacle. Studies of leadership typically divide leaders into policymakers and subordinate administrators. The term is also used in recent history for officials with delegated authority. Cicéron, quelque temps après son consulat, fut envoyé comme proconsul en Cilicie. Proconsul d'Asie. Les consuls sont inscrits en tête de l'album sénatorial, liste dans laquelle les censeurs choisissent les sénateurs. Définitions de consul. Ancien consul qui, en sortant de charge, recevait le commandement d'une province ou d'une armée. Littéraire. Rome's patrician class was prepared to exercise aristocratic leadership, both civil and military. During the Vietnam War, the U.S. attempted to deal with this issue by creating an integrated civilian-military command structure called Civil Operations and Revolutionary Development Support (CORDS). Étymologiquement, ce terme vient du préfixe latin pro, à la place de, et consul.. [19], As Rome acquired territory, the need for provincial governors grew. Proconsul is therefore "ancestral to the Chimpanzee" in Hopwood's words. Proconsul était, chez les Romains, celui qui gouvernait certaines Provinces avec l'autorité de Consul. À Rome, consul sortant dont les pouvoirs étaient prolongés d'un an pour poursuivre une campagne militaire en cours ou pour gouverner une province. Writer Carnes Lord discusses the following figures in the framework of proconsular authority: Alan Knight, "Britain and Latin America" in Andrew Porter (ed), Proconsuls: Delegated Political-Military Leadership from Rome to America Today, Notitia Dignitatum, Or, Register of Dignataries, Ambassadors and envoys from Russia to Poland (1763–1794), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Proconsul&oldid=994959184, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 18 December 2020, at 12:50. [29], British colonial officials sometimes referred to as proconsuls include Alfred Milner in South Africa, Lord Curzon in India, Lord Lugard in Nigeria, and Lord Kitchener in Egypt and Sudan. In the Roman Republic, military command, or imperium, could be exercised constitutionally only by a consul. They were also given imperium so that they could also command an army. During the Third Samnite War (298–290 BC) the consuls of the previous year, Quintus Fabius Maximus Rullianus and Publius Decius Mus, were given a six-month extension of their authority to carry on the war in Samnium. [11] As ruler of Japan and Korea after World War II, U.S. General Douglas MacArthur consciously modeled himself on a Roman aristocrat. A proconsul was typically a former consul. They governed the provinces of: Asia, comprising the central part of the western Anatolian coast; Achaea, comprising the Peloponnese and most of Central Greece; and Africa, the northern part of modern Tunisia. The proconsuls were assigned the provinces which contained the larger number of troops. Voir les citations du mot Proconsul Signification du mot Proconsul Définition Proconsul "[2] It appears on inscriptions beginning in 135 BC. Définitions de proconsul. Finally, modern communications allows for greater central control. This custom allowed for continuity of command despite the high turnover of consuls. When Scipio left Spain after his victory in 205 BC, Lucius Cornelius Lentulus and Lucius Manlius Acidinus were sent as commanders without public office (sine magistratus). In the imperial provinces, the emperors appointed governors who held the title of legatus Augusti pro praetore, or pro-praetor, regardless of what position they had held previously. Julius Caesar, as proconsul, waged military campaigns in Gaul. Having held the Republic's highest office, he was a statesman as well as an administrator. Publilius thus became the first proconsul. (Sous l'Empire, tout gouverneur de province sénatoriale avait le titre de proconsul.) Since this is no longer the case, specific terminology is required to describe such officials. The others were the praetor and the propraetor. Proconsul, Latin Pro Consule, or Proconsul, in the ancient Roman Republic, a consul whose powers had been extended for a definite period after his regular term of one year. In the modern context, it is rarely a compliment. Tous les cinq ans, les anciens consuls peuvent être élus comme censeurs, par les comices centuriates. The consuls and proconsuls lost their military authority, but the titles retained considerable prestige. [25], The more important provinces, which could not with ease or safety be entrusted to the government of annual magistrates, [Augustus] reserved for his own administration: the rest he distributed by lot amongst the proconsuls; but sometimes he made exchanges, and frequently visited most of both kinds in person. consul | proconsul | As nouns the difference between consul and proconsul is that consul is an official residing in a foreign country in order to protect the interests of citizens from his or her nation while proconsul is (in ancient rome) a magistrate who served as a … La province qui leur était attribuée était tirée au sort lors de leur élection. But a modern proconsul may also resort to aristocratic, or charismatic, leadership.[9]. [5], Although "proconsul" is an official title only with respect to magistrates of ancient Rome, the word has also been applied to various British, U.S., and French officials. They could not normally serve two terms in a row. Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License; An official residing in a foreign country in order to protect the interests of citizens from his or her nation. [23], Under the Republic, consuls and proconsuls had raised and commanded armies loyal to themselves. Un consul, une consule.. Le proconsul de telle province. Les proconsuls étaient choisis parmi d'anciens magistrats ayant déjà détenu l'imperium, anciens préteurs ou anciens consuls. The difference between Governor and Proconsul. The "first triumvirate" of Julius Caesar, Pompey and Crassus also received multiyear proconsulships in 59 BC. The province of Sicily was created in 241 BC, while Corsica and Sardinia was created in 238 BC. [26], Augustus decreed that the governors of the senatorial provinces would receive the title proconsul, regardless of whether they had served as praetor or consul. This allowed the emperor to retain control of the army. A consul held imperium, had control of the army, and, following the end of his term in office, could look forward to governing a province as proconsul -- a position that tended to be lucrative. Rather than risk a change of command at such a delicate moment, the Popular Assembly voted that he should "conduct the campaign in place of a consul (prō consule)" after his term expired. It is optional but the only way to have more than 2 generals before Scipio comes out. A consul held the highest elected political office of the Roman Republic (509 to 27 BC), and ancient Romans considered the consulship the highest level of the cursus honorum (an ascending sequence of public offices to which politicians aspired). With each consul and proconsul allowed two legions [...] each, that would add up to a possible total of eight legions present. Conservative and Unionist governments were notably more tolerant of such freelancing than Liberal governments were. Praetors were the second-highest office on the cursus honorum, and the office was generally available to politicians when they reached their 38th birthday. • Socrate, historien ecclésiastique, raconte que Constance, ayant supprimé l'office de proconsul, établit Honorat préfet ou gouverneur de Constantinople ( BOUCHAUD Instit. Le premier cas de proconsulat historiquement cité par Denys d'Halicarnasse date de 464 av. [12] Yet proconsuls are at best an ad hoc solution to a reoccurring problem. [9], The role of U.S. General David Petraeus and others in Iraq suggests a continued need for proconsular leadership, according to Lord. The term is also used in recent history for officials with delegated authority. Several factors are said to limit the scope of proconsular authority in modern times. Tenure was generally restricted to one year. Modern government emphasizes bureaucracy and rulemaking, while the Romans were aristocratic. Proconsul, de pro consule, magistrat romain faisant fonction de consul dans certaines provinces. Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License; additional terms may apply. gmtgames.com. It was an extension of the military command of the consul, but not of his public office. "[28], Notitia Dignitatum, an early fifth-century imperial chancery document, mentions three proconsuls but no propraetors. These were praetors whose imperium was extended and were given the task to command a reserve army. Proconsul Nature : s. m. Prononciation : pro-kon-sul Etymologie : Lat. Rome didn’t have a specific term for ‘provincial governor;’ instead, someone would be given authority to govern a province for a specific term. gmtgames.com. Un proconsul était généralement un ancien consul. He was made proconsul by a vote of the Popular Assembly. In the senatorial provinces, the governors were called proconsuls. Managing a large territory in occupation or conflict requires a range of skills and the ability to deal with various organizations. [20], Under Lex Sempronia, enacted in 133 BC, the senate determined the allocation of the provinces before the next consular elections. proconsul, de pro pour, et consul. "Before Consul," as the Greek name translates, may not seem very dignified for such a remote human … proconsuls pro-Consul Proconsular proconsulship antipatos Cerul consular legate governorship modern usage of the term Proconsul proconsul’s. In modern times, various officials with notable delegated authority have been referred to as proconsuls. A proconsul could be both a rule-following bureaucrat and charismatic personality. Chaque Consul et Proconsul ayant droit à deux [...] Légions, cela donne un total possible de huit Légions. Au premier chef, les consuls sont des agents ou des attachés commerciaux officiels; ils ne sont pas assimilés à des ambassadeurs. These proconsuls ruled in the age of the transoceanic telegraph, so rapid communication did not end proconsular independence.[11]. When used as nouns, governor means the chief executive officer of a province or provincial-level division of a country, whereas proconsul means a magistrate who served as a consul and then as the governor of a province. [Sous l'Empire] Gouverneur d'une province sénatoriale. [10], Although transoceanic telegraph lines were laid by the mid-19th century, Lord describes the late 19th century as the heyday of British proconsular authority. La découverte Les premiers fossiles de Proconsul ont été décrits pour la première fois en 1933 à partir de dents et de fragments de mâchoires exhumés au Kenya par Arthur Tindell Hopwood.Depuis, de nombreuses découvertes ont permis de distinguer quatre espèces distinctes : Proconsul heselon, P. africanus, P. major et P. nyanzae. [18], During the Second Samnite War, Rome increased the number of her legions. The rise of bureaucracy and rapid communication has reduced the scope for proconsular freelancing. The proconsul occupies a position between these two categories. Various American commanders and ambassadors have been referred to as proconsuls. [30] These leaders were able to take imperial initiatives even when the government in London was reluctant. In the form of bureaucracy, the rational-legal mode is dominant in the modern world. [18], There were two republican proconsuls who did not previously hold the position of consul. In the Roman Empire, proconsul was a title held by a civil governor and did not … When his term expired at the end of the year, his army was in the midst of besieging the city of Neapolis (modern Naples). "[7] South African historian John Benyon defines a proconsul as a leader with "semi-independent and extraordinary capacity to shape the periphery" of an empire. (historical) Either of the two highest-ranking officials of the Roman Republic. As nouns the difference between consulate and consul is that consulate is the residency of a consul while consul is an official residing in a foreign country in order to protect the interests of citizens from his or her nation. Sous l'empire romain, on nomma proconsuls les gouverneurs des provinces du sénat ou du peuple. Többnyire maga is volt consul, akinek consularis imperiumát (főhatalmát) egy évre meghosszabbították (pro consule imperium) Hadseregparancsnok. La fonction de proconsul dans la Rome antique correspond à la notion actuelle de gouverneur. The name "Proconsul" is a story in itself: this early Miocene primate wasn't named after the revered proconsuls (provincial governors) of ancient Rome, but after a pair of popular circus chimpanzees, both named Consul, one of which performed in England and the other in France. He was too young to have been a consul. Consuls were central goverment officials who had authority only in Italy, proconsuls were provincial governors who had authority only in their assigned province, in absolute terms proconsul in province had more power cause he wasn't restrained by senate, assembly and popular tribunes like consul. Other Comparisons: What's the difference? Propraetors had the power to command one army, whereas proconsuls had the power to command two armies. Proconsul d'Afrique. [3] Ancient historians describe Quintus Publilius Philo, the first proconsul, as prō consule for 326 BC. Cette nouvelle fonction fut instituée quand Rome eut étendu son pouvoir au loin et que les guerres à soutenir ou les provinces à gouverner se furent multipliées. During the Second Punic War (218–201 BC) Scipio Africanus volunteered to lead the second Roman expedition against the Carthaginians in Spain. Le premier proconsul qui ait été nommé est T. Quinctius Barbatus, en 464 av. Proconsul definition, an official, usually a former consul, who acted as governor or military commander of a province, and who had powers similar to those of a consul. Dans la République romaine, commandement militaire ou Imperium, pourrait être exercé par la Constitution que par un consul. The office of the praetor was introduced in 366 BC. These outranked vicars in precedence, though administratively they were subordinates like all governors. If the person was an ex-consul. = Proconsulat, dignité de Proconsul. [1][6], Despite the gulf between ancient and modern proconsuls, writer Carnes Lord has proposed a single definition to allow the phenomenon to be analyzed in the context of leadership theory: "delegated political-military leadership that rises in the best case to statesmanship. A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome who acted on behalf of a consul. Proconsul definition is - a governor or military commander of an ancient Roman province. In practice, a proconsulship was often treated as an extension of a consul's term. [25][27], A passage in the New Testament notes that cases might be judged by a proconsul: "If therefore Demetrius and the artisans with him have a complaint against anyone, the courts are open, and there are proconsuls; let them bring charges there against one another. [22], In 67 BC, Pompey received extraordinary powers and an unprecedented multiyear proconsulship to deal with the problem of piracy. Two more praetors were added when the provinces of Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior were created in 197 BC. A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome who acted on behalf of a consul. [18], As the number of Roman legions was increased, there was a need to increase the number of military commanders. [1], The Latin word prōconsul is a shortened form of prō consule, meaning "(one acting) on behalf of the consul. Only a consul could command an army, but the high turnover of consuls could disrupt continuity of command. This emphasis can be traced to an essay by Woodrow Wilson written in the late 19th century. Ce farouche proconsul. The provinces were assigned by lot to proconsuls and propraetors. [8], Modern writing on leadership tends to stress the distinction between "administration" on the one hand and "policy" on the other. Au Moyen Âge et sous l'Ancien Régime, magistrat municipal de certaines villes du midi de la France, autonomes par rapport au seigneur. These were chosen by lot, with the result ratified by the Senate. There wasn't subordinance between consul and proconsul, they both had almost equal … The Consul that he selected to use in the name was neither of the ones mentioned above, but another located in the London Zoo. A proconsul az ókori Róma olyan magistratusa (tisztviselője), aki a consul távollétében kapott megbízást egy provincia kormányzására vagy egy hadsereg vezetésére. A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome who acted on behalf of a consul.wikipedia. [18], In theory, proconsuls held delegated authority and acted on behalf of the consuls. PROCONSUL se dit figurément des Commissaires que la Convention envoyait dans les départements insurgés, dans les pays conquis ou auprès des armées. [17], With territorial expansion beyond Italy and the annexation of territories as Roman provinces, the proconsul became one of the three types of Roman provincial governors. In earlier epochs, it was common for leaders to combine the two roles. D’autres procès suivent, mais les accusés, jugés par leurs pairs, ne sont en pratique jamais condamnés [18]. The order is that you select a Proconsul from one of your existing Consuls on the board. A proconsul was typically a former consul. À leur retour à Rome, les consuls et les proconsuls commencent à devoir rendre des comptes [14] : en 171 av. 100% (1/1) Roman Romans Empire. romaine,t.2, 1831, p.56). À partir du principat d'Auguste, plusieurs empereurs romains se feront élire comme consuls. There were two consuls at a time, each elected to a one-year term. [13] Another factor is that civilian policymakers, whether on the spot or in the metropole, may lack the skills needed to manage military forces. Un proconsul était un fonctionnaire de la Rome antique qui a agi au nom d'un consul. (G. Bloch; « La République romaine » -1913) - Cicéron, quelque temps après son consulat, fut envoyé comme proconsul en Cilicie. (historical) One of the three chief magistrates of France from 1799 to 1804. Le terme est également utilisé dans l' histoire récente pour les fonctionnaires ayant les pouvoirs délégués. Juridictionnaire consul / consule / consulaire / consulat / diplomate / diplomatique. If a military campaign was in progress at the end of a consul's term, the consul in command might be appointed as proconsul by the Senate when his term expired. This extension applied only outside the city walls of Rome. [24], The provinces were divided between imperial provinces, which were under the jurisdiction of the emperor, and senatorial provinces, which were under the jurisdiction of the senate. "[15], The position was created to deal with a constitutional peculiarity of the Roman Republic. This was done because Manlius Acidinus had not been a consul before. He also added africanus as the species name. his authority was designated as proconsular Essentially a governor of a province. No one is trained as a proconsul and the available administrators have experience in at most one relevant agency or service. Le terme « proconsul » tient au fait que son titulaire exerçait un pouvoir consulaire ; cependant, tous les proconsuls n'étaient pas forcément d'anciens consuls. [18], In 307 BC, Quintus Fabius Maximus Rullianus, who was consul the previous year, was elected as proconsul to conduct the campaign in Samnium. If a consul's term ended in the midst of a campaign, he could be appointed proconsul and continue to command. 2. Lord Curzon in India, Frederick Lugard in Nigeria, Cecil Rhodes in South Africa, and Lord Cromer in Egypt all took imperial initiatives that London approved only reluctantly. In the Roman Republic, a proconsul was typically a former consul and thus an experienced commander-in-chief. He defeated the Pentri, the largest Samnite tribe. But as email and Power Point presentations proliferate, clarity and intellectual discipline is lost. À Rome, magistrat qui partageait avec un collègue le pouvoir suprême. Le Sénat et le peuple romain, et T. Q. Flaminius, proconsul, vainqueur de Philippe et des Macédoniens, déclarent libres et exempts de tout tribut, les Corinthiens (Michelet, Hist. The praetors were the chief justices of the city. The imperial provinces were mostly the border provinces, where most of the legions were stationed. The position of propraetor was instituted. 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D'Halicarnasse date de 464 av [ 23 ], in 67 BC, Pompey received extraordinary and! Rome 's first emperor, replaced these essentially private armies with a constitutional peculiarity of the transoceanic telegraph, rapid! ) Hadseregparancsnok fonctionnaires ayant les pouvoirs étaient prolongés d'un an pour poursuivre campagne. To combine the two highest-ranking officials of the transoceanic telegraph, so rapid communication did not previously the... Initiatives even when the number of troops mentions three proconsuls but no propraetors d'un an pour une. Praetors were the second-highest office on the board - a governor or military commander of ancient... [ 3 ] ancient historians describe Quintus Publilius Philo, the governors were called proconsuls sources use the shortened.! Only way to have more than 2 generals before Scipio comes out la Rome antique correspond à la tête provinces! 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